dimanche 19 février 2012

What caste is gandhi from?

Mohandas Gandhi is a gujratti and a brahamin.

Le gujarātī (ou goudjarātī, goudjarati ; nom local : gujarātī / ગુજરાતી [guɟəɾa:t̪i]) est une langue indienne appartenant au groupe indo-iranien de la famille des langues indo-européennes. Il est parlé principalement dans l'État de Gujarat (Goudjerat), dans l'ouest de l'Inde. C'est une langue officielle reconnue par la Constitution fédérale, dérivée de prâkrits, et très proche du rajasthani dont il dérive ; les locuteurs musulmans et parsis ont, de fait, apporté un grand nombre de termes arabo-persans à son lexique. Le gujarātī est noté au moyen d'un alphasyllabaire très similaire à la devanagari mais sans la ligne continue caractéristique qui relie le sommet des caractères. Il compte environ 46 millions de locuteurs.

Le gujarātī est parlé par environ 46 millions de personnes dans le monde, dont 45,5 millions en Inde, 250 000 en Tanzanie, 150 000 en Ouganda, 100 000 au Pakistan et 50 000 au Kenya. La langue compte également des locuteurs en Afrique du Sud qui, selon l'article 6 de sa constitution, en fait la promotion1.

En Inde, le gujarātī est la langue principale de l'État du Gujarat et des territoires Daman et Diu et Dadra et Nagar Haveli.

Un nombre important de locuteurs vivent aux États-Unis (dans les États du New Jersey, de New York, du Texas et de Californie) et au Royaume-Uni (Leicester et Wembley).

Le gujarātī est langue officielle de l'État du Gujarat, en Inde.

ગુજરાતી / gujarātī
Parlée en Drapeau d'Inde Inde, Drapeau de Tanzanie Tanzanie, Drapeau d'Ouganda Ouganda, Drapeau du Pakistan Pakistan, Drapeau du Kenya Kenya, Drapeau de Madagascar Madagascar
Nombre de locuteurs 46 millions
Typologie SOV
Classification par famille

Statut officiel
Langue officielle de Gujarat
Codes de langue
ISO 639-1 gu
ISO 639-2 guj
ISO 639-3 guj

Brahmin (also that Brahman; from Sanskrit brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण) is a name used to designate a member of one of the four varnas in the traditional Hindu society.

The English word brahmin is an anglicised form of the Hindustani word brāhman, itself from Sanskrit brāhmaṇa. In the Smriti view there are four "varnas", or classes: the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and Shudras.

Traditionally Brahmins were fire-priests who adhered to different branches (shakhas) of Vedas. However, historically, the semantic change from a tribal state into the Hindu state of jati-varna matrix saw the conversion and absorption of tribals into the Brahmin class, through adoption of the priestly occupation later.[1][2] In Medieval and Colonial India, people in mundane occupations have also proselytized themselves into Brahmins, usually upon gaining positions of power or upon becoming wealthy.[3][4]

The Smritis conferred upon the Brahmins the position of being the highest of the four Varnas. The priestly class was expected to practice self-abnegation and play the role of being the custodians of Dharma (as a Brāhman who is well versed in Vedic texts). However, the fee paid to the Brahmana for performance of a sacrifice was grossly material.[5]

Most sampradayas (sects) of modern Brahmins claim to take inspiration from the Vedas. According to orthodox Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), and are revealed truths of eternal validity.

The Vedas are considered Śruti ("that which is heard") and are the paramount source on which Brahmin tradition claims to be based. Shruti includes not only the four Vedas[citation needed] (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respective Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

In 1931, Brahmins accounted for 9% of the total population. In Andhra Pradesh, they formed less than 2%; in Tamil Nadu they formed less than 3%.[6] In Kerala, Nambudiri Brahmins make up 0.7% of the population. In West Bengal the figures stand at 5 %, whereas in Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar and Orissa the brahmin population is quite near 10%.

The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from Northern India and considered to be North of Vindhya mountains and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from South of Vindhya mountains as per the shloka. However, this sloka is from Rajatarangini of Kalhana, which was composed only in the 11th century CE.

कर्णाटकाश्च तैलङ्गा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः,
गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः,
पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ||[7]

Translation: Karnataka (Kannada), Telugu (Andhra), Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), Maharashtra and Gujarat are Five Southern (Panch Dravida). Saraswata (Punjab,Kashmir & Sindh), Kanyakubja (Uttar Pradesh), Gauda (Kurukshetra and Rajasthan), Utkala (Orissa), Maithili (Bihar) are Five Northern (Pancha Gauda). This classification occurs in Rajatarangini of Kalhana and earlier in some inscriptions[8]

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